Oct 17

St. Jacob’s Cathedral (Catedrala Sf. Iacob)

St. Jacob’s Cathedral is a beautiful cathedral which combines elements pertaining to the Gothic and Romanesque architectural styles. This edifice, which is located in Riga, is among the oldest of its kind but among the most wonderfully crafted. The detailing of both the exterior and the interior reflect the architectural evolution of the cathedral as several stylistic designs are incorporated within its structure.

The Gothic tower comprises 3 stained glass windows which depict an amalgam of leaf and berry motifs beautifully painted in the Art Nouveau style, a representation meant to symbolize the Eucharist.

http://dougtischler.blogspot.ro

The church, which is dedicated to St. James the Great, dates from the 13th century, having been mentioned for the first time in official documents in 1225. Throughout time, the original edifice was improved. In the 15th century, the Gothic church was remodeled in the sense that a fragment of the edifice was turned into a basilica. More so, in the same period of time, the Holy Cross Chapel was constructed in close vicinity of the church.

Even the scope of the church shifted according to the religious wave that swept over Latvia at particular times. For instance, in the 16th century, when the Protestant Reformation was under way, the cathedral was transformed into a German language Lutheran church. In 1523, it was turned into a Latvian language Lutheran church.

http://irelandsmission.blogspot.ro

In the later part of the 16th century, the church underwent a change of hands as it was offered to the Jesuits when the Counter Reformation took shape. However, it was returned to the Lutherans after Gustav II Adolf gained control over Riga. There was a time when the edifice served completely different purposes than the ones it was designed for. In the early 19th century (1812), Napoleon’s army used the building for storage.

In the 20th century, the cathedral returned to the Catholics and has remained under their administration till the present day.

http://tripwow.tripadvisor.com

It is believed that St. Jacob’s Cathedral has been around since the early development of Riga. Bishop Albert, the founder of the city, is thought to have ordered for the cathedral to be erected together with two other churches: the Virgin Mary’s Assumption Church and St. Peter’s Church.

Even if the church is recorded in the annals of Riga from the early 13th century, the construction work extended over a lengthy period, the edifice having been completed in the 1300s. But work on the church was carried on until the later decades of the 15th century.

http://latvianhistory.wordpress.com

St. Jacob’s Cathedral consists of red bricks placed on a limestone fundament. While throughout the passage of time the church underwent several modifications, the original structure has been kept.

The last adjustments conveyed to the edifice were done at the end of the 18th century when a supplementary roof was built in the shape of a pyramid and the tower was plated in cooper.

At present, the cathedral comprises a central hall with a specially arranged space for the choir, the basement and a prayer room which is made up of 2 presbyteries and the altar room. St. Jacobs’s church is an architectural monument, having been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Jul 16

St. Peter’s Church (Biserica Sf. Petru)

St. Peter’s Church is situated in the historical center of the Latvian capital city, Riga. The locality of the monument is enough to indicate that the church is a part of the history of the state, thus pointing to its significancy. But more so, St. Peter’s Church is an ancient and valuable construction not solely of Latvia, but of the Baltic region. Representative for the medieval architectural design, the church has been recognized for its value and included in the UNESCO World Heritage Program in 1997.

The first written document which attests the existance of the church dates from the beginning of the 13th century (1209). At first, the structure was quite different from what it is presented before us at present. The church had a small hall and 3 corridors which were more or less identical in terms of height and width. As there is no mentioning of a belfry, the accurate assumption is that this was probably constructed separately.

http://www.carhireriga.eu

 

The edifice which stands today is actually the result of the restoration work conducted in the 15th century. The altar dates from the same century and it is representative for the Gothic style. In fact, the same architectural design can be encountered in a basilica located in the German town of Rostock – the St. Mary Church.

The Gothic belfry, which exceeded 130 m in height, was finished at the turn of the century, but it did not manage to survive too long. The steeple came tumbling down in 1666 and the church remained without this intrinsic part of the construction for 24 years. It was not until 1690 that a new belfry was constructed under the supervision of Rupert Bindenschuh.

http://www.latvia.travel

 

This new building bore the mark of the Baroque style and consisted of various domes and corridors. But the material from which it was created, wood, was definitely not the best of choices. In 1721, during a lightning storm, the steeple, the largest edifice in the world at that time, was burnt to the ground.  Tsar Peter the Great, who was in Riga at the time of the fire, gave order that the steeple be reconstructed to its former structure.

The work was completed in 1746 and the church survived up until the Second World War. This time of world conflagration brought about the demolishing of the church. The fate of the church was doomed: the belfry and the roof were reduced to ashes while the interior was completely devastated.

http://www.baltictravelservices.com

 

But the basilica was to be restored one step at a time, beginning from 1954. The first part of this project consisted of restoring the roof, this time covering it with tiles. The steeple would not see the light of day until 1967. The new belfry would set itself apart from the previous design it bore, as this time around the material used in its construction was metal. Another differentiation consists in the height of the building, the new steeple measuring 123,25 m, a couple of meters below its precursor.

Modernity had its way of getting involved in the restoration work, in as much that visitors can ascend from one passage to the next via an elevator. This goes up as much as 72 m. The restoration work for the church was finalized in June, 1973. The Clock Tower was restored in one year’s time, from 1975 until 1976.

http://www.flickr.com

 

After the exterior was redone, architects turned their entire attention to the interior of the church and managed to create a one-of-a-kind design. The ceiling of the basilica consists of overlapped and stellar cupolas and it is supported by massive columns. The altar consists of 5 chapels, arranged in a circle ,- design representative for the Gothic architectural style.

The restoration work was lengthy and strenuous, but the result was worth it, as at present Latvia prides itself with one of the oldest and most significant basilicas situated in the Baltic States. In honor of the persons and organizations which contributed to the restoration of St. Peter’s Basilica, an inscription plate was placed near the church in 1995.

Today, the church is a unique cultural monument, bearing signs both of the past and present architectural design.